Thursday, November 26, 2015

The Christian State, the Islamic State, the Jewish State: Crime and Punishment, Genocide and Terracide

Tupak Huehuecoyotl 

Colonization matters, it is illegal. The codification of colonization as an international crime against World Peace and Humanity was realized for the first time in international law in 1960 by UN General Assembly resolution 1514, which proclaimed: "All peoples have the right of self determination."

Today, the right of self-determination of peoples is a fundamental principle in international law. It is embodied in the Charter of the United Nations and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Common Article 1, paragraph 1 of these Covenants provides that:

"All peoples have the rights of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development."

The above are references in the international instruments of the Westphalian System (1648) of State Sovereignty [AKA the United Nations] which now the dominates international affairs of the so-called “civilized world”. These are today the primary legal instruments under which the Right of Self Determination is expressed, invoked, and defended. With the adoption in 2007 of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the right of self determination of Indigenous Peoples, equal to all other peoples..." is proclaimed for the first time in the history of international law.

Yet to approach the concept of self determination today from the perspective of the Nican Tlacah Cemanahuac (Original Nations of Indigenous Peoples of Mother Earth), the collective nature of the responsibility self determination must be re-contextualized in terms of climate justice principles and the climate chaos scenario now upon us all. 

As the most ancient of Human Societies on the planet who predate by tens of thousands of years the formation of the “state” structures globally, the Indigenous Peoples are not merely ethnic groups within the more recent “Nation State” schema of global society in mal-adaptive position of alienation from the reality of the natural world in which we are embedded and with which we share equally with all other Earth Beings.

As Nican Tlacah Cemanahuac, collectively we represent an unbroken continuity in the historical ecological experience of human beings on earth since time immortal. Our cultures present daily the memory and vision of the roots and destiny of the Human Spirit in kindred relations with all our other relatives of the natural world.

The right of self determination is a universal inherent human right, with a vision of responsibility globally to the Human Rights of the Future Generations and the decolonization of Mother Earth as essential for any hope of sustainability or homeostasis for Human Society with the Natural World.  We can not aspire to peace on earth if we are not at peace with Mother Earth. The combined GDP of all of the nation state economies of the planet cannot begin to pay back the ecological debt being heaped at the door of the Age of Climate Chaos which we are now experiencing and where our children will bear the greatest burden.


We, representatives of indigenous peoples of Asia gathered in Baguio City came together to share our experiences and aspirations in the face of our concrete situations. We have come to find out that our peoples are faced with problems such as denial of our right of self-determination, militarization and State sponsored violence, governmental transmigration policies, cultural oppression, development oppression and denial of our identities as indigenous peoples.

We have also come to find hope in the various struggles being waged by indigenous peoples in Asia and we affirm and assert the following:

1.  Assert that the right of self-determination of all peoples, including indigenous peoples, is an inherent and universal human right, as exercised by them throughout history;

Abya Yala

The institutionalization of White Supremacy as an instrument of European American colonization within the 522-year-old settler state constructs of Christendom known continentally as AMERICA is ongoing, pervasive and intellectually insidious. The root of this dehumanizing psychological social pathogen is the racist Doctrine of Discovery 1492 established and normalized under the DOGMA OF DOMINION of Christendom, which can be compared to the same psychology of religious zealots that is today condemned globally under the ideology of ISIS, and the illegal and genocidal policies of Israel towards the Palestinian peoples.  In historical reality and present geo-political terms, these three religions as Sons of the Books of Abraham, are not three separate religions: They share the same root, and suffer from the same fundamentalist rot.

“Thus a completely new mythology arose, and instead of the ancient Sumero-Babylonian contemplation of the disappearances and reappearances of planets as revelatory of an order of nature with which society was to be held in accord, an idea of good and evil, light and dark, even of life and death as separable took hold, and the prophecy was announced of a progressive restoration to righteousness of the order of nature. Where formerly there had been the planetary cycles, marking days and nights, the months, years, and eons of unending time, there was now to be a straight line of progressive world history with a beginning, a middle, and a prophesied end—Gayomart, Zarathustra, and Soshyant: Adam, Jesus, and the Second Coming. Where formerly there had been, as the ideal, harmony with the whole, there was now discrimination, a decision to be made, “not peace, but a sword” (Matthew 10:34), effort, struggle, and zeal, in the name of a universal reform”.

Joseph Campbell in The Inner Reaches of Outer Space: Metaphor as Myth and as Religion. 1986. 

Colonization matters, it is not only illegal but if the future of Humanity is to be realized within a collective and life affirming culture of mutual respect for the natural world which we share equally in responsibility, the DOGMA of DOMINION which gave birth to the concept as a norm of “civilized man” aka the “White Man’s Burden” must be challenged and dismantled. Regurgitated by the institutionalized racism of the settler states of America and sanctified by the dogma of cultural supremacy of European American Christendom, the “chosen people” of the “City on the Hill” are called to continue to play out their role as minions of nefarious Doctrine of Discovery.  

The insidious nature of the pogrom extends to the point where even the colonizing construct of “Latin America” has subverted the self determination and Nationhood of Original Nations Abya Yala by the Genizaro Republics of the Americas and their radical ideologues of both the right and left of the Game of Thrones: The concept of State Sovereignty via Westphalia 1648.

Under this diabolical matrix of religious orthodoxy, racial supremacy, and anthropocentric worldview, the genocide of the Original Nations of Indigenous Peoples of the Great Turtle Island Abya Yala [Americas] continues unabated and accelerates as the cresting Asian economic power structures of capitalism reach in to grab their piece of the promised land: the American Pie.

Now when CLIMATE CHAOS is the term of the day, of the night, and of the Age, we are called to the defense not only of our rights, but to our responsibilities to the future generations.

The Westphalian system of state sovereignty is incompetent to address the global climate issues, it simply functions as an instrument of the economic and military (actually these are both the same) power players of the global elites and their supra-national corporations of capitalism.

Similar to the way Genocide was first codified in 1948 by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 260, as “Indigenous Peoples equal to all other peoples…” we are called now to move towards a global convention on TERRACIDE: The willful and premeditated Crime against Humanity and the Rights of Mother Earth that results in the destruction of the capacity of EARTH to be a Mother to the Future Generations.

The global climate chaos horizon upon us now is only a reflection of the global cultural climate which would hold us all captive, colonizer and colonized alike, under the regimes of state terror that began their history only some 5,000 years ago as bastard breeds of the Doctrines of Marduk, cloaked with ideologies of exploitation and expropriation disguised as economic development in denial of the Sacredness of Mother Earth. 



Architectures of the States and the Territorial Integrity of Mother Earth

We declare our INTERDEPENDENCE and Solidarity as Peoples of Mother Earth and call for the recognition, respect, and protection for the particular and integral constituencies of our Peoples of Mother Earth as represented in our responsibilities to the Watersheds, the Earth:Waters and Single Sea (hydrosphere) of the planet, beyond the disjointed and corrupt constraints of the Westphalian System of State Sovereignty represented in the UN system and the present international architectures of personality and procedures of negotiation and agreements;




Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Suppressed Speech Of Wamsutta (Frank B.) James, Wampanoag

Suppressed Speech Of Wamsutta (Frank B.) James, Wampanoag

This is the Suppressed speech of Wamsutta (Frank B.) James, Wampanoag. that was to be delivered at Plymouth, Massachusetts, 1970.

The Massachusetts Department of Commerce asked the Wampanoag Indians to select a speaker to mark the 350th anniversary of the Pilgrims' arrival, and the first Thanksgiving.

Three hundred fifty years after the Pilgrims began their invasion of the land of the Wampanoag, their "American" descendants planned an anniversary celebration. Still clinging to the white schoolbook myth of friendly relations between their forefathers and the Wampanoag, the anniversary planners thought it would be nice to have an Indian make an appreciative and complimentary speech at their state dinner. Frank James was asked to speak at the celebration. He accepted. The planners, however , asked to see his speech in advance of the occasion, and it turned out that Frank James' views — based on history rather than mythology — were not what the Pilgrims' descendants wanted to hear. Frank James refused to deliver a speech written by a public relations person. Frank James did not speak at the anniversary celebration. If he had spoken, this is what he would have said:

I speak to you as a man -- a Wampanoag Man. I am a proud man, proud of my ancestry, my accomplishments won by a strict parental direction ("You must succeed - your face is a different color in this small Cape Cod community!"). I am a product of poverty and discrimination from these two social and economic diseases. I, and my brothers and sisters, have painfully overcome, and to some extent we have earned the respect of our community. We are Indians first - but we are termed "good citizens." Sometimes we are arrogant but only because society has pressured us to be so.

It is with mixed emotion that I stand here to share my thoughts. This is a time of celebration for you - celebrating an anniversary of a beginning for the white man in America. A time of looking back, of reflection. It is with a heavy heart that I look back upon what happened to my People.

Even before the Pilgrims landed it was common practice for explorers to capture Indians, take them to Europe and sell them as slaves for 220 shillings apiece. The Pilgrims had hardly explored the shores of Cape Cod for four days before they had robbed the graves of my ancestors and stolen their corn and beans. Mourt's Relation describes a searching party of sixteen men. Mourt goes on to say that this party took as much of the Indians' winter provisions as they were able to carry.

Massasoit, the great Sachem of the Wampanoag, knew these facts, yet he and his People welcomed and befriended the settlers of the Plymouth Plantation. Perhaps he did this because his Tribe had been depleted by an epidemic. Or his knowledge of the harsh oncoming winter was the reason for his peaceful acceptance of these acts. This action by Massasoit was perhaps our biggest mistake. We, the Wampanoag, welcomed you, the white man, with open arms, little knowing that it was the beginning of the end; that before 50 years were to pass, the Wampanoag would no longer be a free people.

What happened in those short 50 years? What has happened in the last 300 years? History gives us facts and there were atrocities; there were broken promises - and most of these centered around land ownership. Among ourselves we understood that there were boundaries, but never before had we had to deal with fences and stone walls. But the white man had a need to prove his worth by the amount of land that he owned. Only ten years later, when the Puritans came, they treated the Wampanoag with even less kindness in converting the souls of the so-called "savages." Although the Puritans were harsh to members of their own society, the Indian was pressed between stone slabs and hanged as quickly as any other "witch."

And so down through the years there is record after record of Indian lands taken and, in token, reservations set up for him upon which to live. The Indian, having been stripped of his power, could only stand by and watch while the white man took his land and used it for his personal gain. This the Indian could not understand; for to him, land was survival, to farm, to hunt, to be enjoyed. It was not to be abused. We see incident after incident, where the white man sought to tame the "savage" and convert him to the Christian ways of life. The early Pilgrim settlers led the Indian to believe that if he did not behave, they would dig up the ground and unleash the great epidemic again.

The white man used the Indian's nautical skills and abilities. They let him be only a seaman -- but never a captain. Time and time again, in the white man's society, we Indians have been termed "low man on the totem pole."

Has the Wampanoag really disappeared? There is still an aura of mystery. We know there was an epidemic that took many Indian lives - some Wampanoags moved west and joined the Cherokee and Cheyenne. They were forced to move. Some even went north to Canada! Many Wampanoag put aside their Indian heritage and accepted the white man's way for their own survival. There are some Wampanoag who do not wish it known they are Indian for social or economic reasons.

What happened to those Wampanoags who chose to remain and live among the early settlers? What kind of existence did they live as "civilized" people? True, living was not as complex as life today, but they dealt with the confusion and the change. Honesty, trust, concern, pride, and politics wove themselves in and out of their [the Wampanoags'] daily living. Hence, he was termed crafty, cunning, rapacious, and dirty.

History wants us to believe that the Indian was a savage, illiterate, uncivilized animal. A history that was written by an organized, disciplined people, to expose us as an unorganized and undisciplined entity. Two distinctly different cultures met. One thought they must control life; the other believed life was to be enjoyed, because nature decreed it. Let us remember, the Indian is and was just as human as the white man. The Indian feels pain, gets hurt, and becomes defensive, has dreams, bears tragedy and failure, suffers from loneliness, needs to cry as well as laugh. He, too, is often misunderstood.

The white man in the presence of the Indian is still mystified by his uncanny ability to make him feel uncomfortable. This may be the image the white man has created of the Indian; his "savageness" has boomeranged and isn't a mystery; it is fear; fear of the Indian's temperament!

High on a hill, overlooking the famed Plymouth Rock, stands the statue of our great Sachem, Massasoit. Massasoit has stood there many years in silence. We the descendants of this great Sachem have been a silent people. The necessity of making a living in this materialistic society of the white man caused us to be silent. Today, I and many of my people are choosing to face the truth. We ARE Indians!

Although time has drained our culture, and our language is almost extinct, we the Wampanoags still walk the lands of Massachusetts. We may be fragmented, we may be confused. Many years have passed since we have been a people together. Our lands were invaded. We fought as hard to keep our land as you the whites did to take our land away from us. We were conquered, we became the American prisoners of war in many cases, and wards of the United States Government, until only recently.

Our spirit refuses to die. Yesterday we walked the woodland paths and sandy trails. Today we must walk the macadam highways and roads. We are uniting We're standing not in our wigwams but in your concrete tent. We stand tall and proud, and before too many moons pass we'll right the wrongs we have allowed to happen to us.

We forfeited our country. Our lands have fallen into the hands of the aggressor. We have allowed the white man to keep us on our knees. What has happened cannot be changed, but today we must work towards a more humane America, a more Indian America, where men and nature once again are important; where the Indian values of honor, truth, and brotherhood prevail.

You the white man are celebrating an anniversary. We the Wampanoags will help you celebrate in the concept of a beginning. It was the beginning of a new life for the Pilgrims. Now, 350 years later it is a beginning of a new determination for the original American: the American Indian.

There are some factors concerning the Wampanoags and other Indians across this vast nation. We now have 350 years of experience living amongst the white man. We can now speak his language. We can now think as a white man thinks. We can now compete with him for the top jobs. We're being heard; we are now being listened to. The important point is that along with these necessities of everyday living, we still have the spirit, we still have the unique culture, we still have the will and, most important of all, the determination to remain as Indians. We are determined, and our presence here this evening is living testimony that this is only the beginning of the American Indian, particularly the Wampanoag, to regain the position in this country that is rightfully ours.

Wamsutta September 10, 1970 


National Day of Mourning Reflects on Thanksgiving’s Horrific, Bloody History

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

UNGA 1541: Principios de Guía para la Descolonización

1541 (XV). Principios que deben servir de guía a los Estados Miembros para determinar si existe o no la obligación de transmitir la información que se pide en el inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta  

La Asamblea General,  

Considerando los objetivos enunciados en el Capítulo XI de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas,  

Teniendo presente la lista de factores que figura como anexo a la resolución 752 (VIII) de la Asamblea Ge­neral de 27 de noviembre de 1953,  

Habiendo examinado el informe del Comité Especial de los Seis sobre la transmisión de información en virtud del inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta", creado por la resolución 1467 (XIV) de la Asamblea General de 12 de diciembre de 1959 a fin de que estudiara los principios que deben servir de guía a los Estados Miembros para determinar si existe o no la obligación de transmitir la información que se pide en el inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta e informara a la Asamblea en su decimoquinto período de sesiones sobre el resul­tado de su estudio,

  1. Expresa su reconocimiento por las actividades del Comité Especial de los Seis sobre la transmisión de información en virtud del inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta;
  2. Aprueba los principios enunciados en la subdi­visión B de la sección V del informe del Comité con las modificaciones introducidas y tal como figuran en el anexo a la presente resolución ;
  3. Decide que dichos principios deben aplicarse a la luz de los hechos y de las circunstancias de cada caso para determinar si existe o no la obligación de trans­mitir la información que se pide en el inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta.
948a. sesión plenaria, 15 de diciembre de 1960.  


Principio 1
Los autores de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas tenían la intención de que el Capítulo XI se aplicara a los territorios considerados entonces de tipo colonial. Existe la obligación de transmitir la información que se pide en el inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta respecto de los territorios cuyos pueblos no han alcanzado aún la plenitud del gobierno propio.

Principio II
En el Capítulo XI de la Carta se vincula el concepto de territorio no autónomo a un estado dinámico de evolución y progreso hacia "la plenitud del gobierno propio". La obligación cesa en el momento en que el territorio y su población alcanzan la plenitud del gobierno propio. Hasta ese momento sigue exis­tiendo la obligación de transmitir la información que se pide en el inciso e del Artículo 73.

Principio III
La obligación de transmitir información en virtud del inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta cae en la esfera de las obliga­ciones internacionales y debe cumplirse con el respeto debido a la realización del derecho internacional.

Principio IV
Existe a primera vista la obligación de transmitir informa­ción respecto de un territorio que está separado geográfica­mente del país que lo administra y es distinto de éste en sus aspectos étnicos o culturales.
Principio V
Una vez establecido que se trata a primera vista de un terri­torio distinto desde el punto de vista geográfico y étnico o
cultural, se pueden tener en cuenta otros elementos. Esos ele­mentos podrán ser, entre otros, de carácter administrativo, político, jurídico, económico o histórico. Si influyen en las relaciones entre el Estado metropolitano y el territorio de modo que éste se encuentra colocado arbitrariamente en una situación o en estado de subordinación, esos elementos con­firman la presunción de que existe la obligación de transmitir la información que se pide en el inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta.

Principio VI
Puede considerarse que un territorio no autónomo ha alcan­zado la plenitud del gobierno propio:

  1. Cuando pasa a ser un Estado independiente y soberano;
  2. Cuando establece una libre asociación con un Estado in­dependiente; o
  3. Cuando se integra a un Estado independiente.

Principio VII

  1. La libre asociación debe ser el resultado de la libre y voluntaria elección de los pueblos del territorio interesado expresada con conocimiento de causa y por procedimientos de­mocráticos. En esa asociación se deben respetar la individualidad y las características culturales del territorio y de sus pueblos, y reservar a los pueblos del territorio que se asocian a un Estado independiente la libertad de modificar el estatuto de ese territorio mediante la expresión de su voluntad por medios democráticos y con arreglo a los procedimientos constitucionales.
  2. El territorio que se asocia debe tener derecho a deter­minar su constitución interna sin ninguna ingerencia exterior, de conformidad con los debidos procedimientos constitucionales y los deseos libremente expresados de su pueblo. Este derecho no excluirá la posibilidad de celebrar las consultas que sean apropiadas o necesarias con arreglo a las condiciones de la libre asociación que se haya concertado.

Principio VIII
La integración a un Estado independiente debe fundarse en el principio de completa igualdad entre los pueblos del terri­torio que hasta ese momento ha sido no autónomo y los del país independiente al cual se integra. Los pueblos de los dos territorios deben tener, sin distinción ni discriminación alguna, la misma condición y los mismos derechos de ciudadanía, así como las mismas garantías en lo que se refiere a sus derechos y libertades fundamentales; ambos deben tener los mismos derechos y las mismas posibilidades de representación y parti­cipación en los órganos ejecutivos, legislativos y judiciales del gobierno, en todos sus grados.

Principio IX
La integración debe producirse en las condiciones siguientes:

  1. El territorio que se integra debe haber alcanzado un estado avanzado de autonomía y poseer instituciones políticas libres, de modo que sus pueblos estén en condiciones de de­cidir, en forma responsable, con conocimiento de causa y por procedimientos democráticos.
  2. La integración debe ser el resultado de los deseos libre­mente expresados de los pueblos del territorio, plenamente en­terados del cambio de su estatuto, con conocimiento de causa y por procedimientos democráticos, aplicados imparcialmente y fundados en el sufragio universal de los adultos. Las Naciones Unidas podrán, cuando lo juzguen necesario, vigilar esos pro­cedimientos.

Principio X
La transmisión de información respecto de los territorios no autónomos en virtud del inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta está sujeta a los límites que requieren la seguridad y las consideraciones de orden constitucional. Esto significa que, en determinadas circunstancias, el alcance de la información puede ser limitado, pero los límites enunciados en el inciso e del Artículo 73 no pueden relevar a ningún Estado Miembro de las obligaciones que impone el Capítulo XI. Los "límites"únicamente pueden referirse al volumen de la información de carácter social, económico y educativo que se ha de transmitir.

Principio XI
Las consideraciones de orden constitucional a que única­mente se alude en el inciso e del Artículo 73 de la Carta son las que resultan de las relaciones constitucionales del territorio con el Estado Miembro Administrador. Esas consideraciones se refieren al caso en que la constitución de un territorio le confiere autonomía respecto a las cuestiones económicas, so­ciales y educativas mediante instituciones elegidas libremente. No obstante, la obligación de transmitir información en virtud del inciso e del Artículo 73 subsiste, a menos que, debido a esas relaciones constitucionales, el gobierno o el parlamento del Estado Miembro Administrador se encuentren en la impo­sibilidad de recibir datos estadísticos u otra información de índole técnica relativa a las condiciones económicas, sociales y educativas del territorio.

Principio XII
Las exigencias de la seguridad no se han invocado en el pasado. Sólo en circunstancias muy excepcionales puede atri­buirse a la información sobre las condiciones económicas, so­ciales y educativas algún aspecto de seguridad. En otras cir­cunstancias, por lo tanto, no debería existir necesidad alguna de limitar la transmisión de información por razones de seguridad.

1514 (XV). Declaración sobre la concesión de la independencia a los países y pueblos coloniales

1514 (XV). Declaración sobre la concesión de la independencia a los países y pueblos coloniales  

La Asamblea General,

Teniendo presente que los pueblos del mundo han proclamado en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas que están resueltos a reafirmar la fe en los derechos fun­damentales del hombre, en la dignidad y el valor de la persona humana, en la igualdad de derechos de hombres y mujeres y de las naciones grandes y pequeñas y a promover el progreso social y a elevar el nivel de vida dentro de un concepto más amplio de la libertad,

Consciente de la necesidad de crear condiciones de estabilidad y bienestar y relaciones pacíficas y amistosas basadas en el respeto de los principios de la igualdad de derechos y de la libre determinación de todos los pueblos, y de asegurar el respeto universal de los dere­chos humanos y las libertades fundamentales para todos sin hacer distinción por motivos de raza, sexo, idioma o religión, y la efectividad de tales derechos y libertades,

Reconociendo el apasionado deseo de libertad que abrigan todos los pueblos dependientes y el papel deci­sivo de dichos pueblos en el logro de su independencia,

Consciente de los crecientes conflictos que origina el hecho de negar la libertad a esos pueblos o de impedirla, lo cual constituye una grave amenaza a la paz mundial,

Considerando el importante papel que corresponde a las Naciones Unidas como medio de favorecer el movimiento en pro de la independencia en los territorios en fideicomiso y en los territorios no autónomos,

Reconociendo que los pueblos del mundo desean ar­dientemente el fin del colonialismo en todas sus mani­festaciones,

Convencida de que la continuación del colonialismo impide el desarrollo de la cooperación económica inter­nacional, entorpece el desarrollo social, cultural y eco­nómico de los pueblos dependientes y milita en contra del ideal de paz universal de las Naciones Unidas,

Afirmando que los pueblos pueden, para sus propios fines, disponer libremente de sus riquezas y recursos naturales sin perjuicio de las obligaciones resultantes de la cooperación económica internacional, basada en el principio del provecho mutuo, y del derecho internacional,

Creyendo que el proceso de liberación es irresistible e irreversible y que, a fin de evitar crisis graves, es preciso poner fin al colonialismo y a todas las prácticas de segregación y discriminación que lo acompañan,

Celebrando que en los últimos años muchos terri­torios dependientes hayan alcanzado la libertad y la independencia, y reconociendo las tendencias cada vez más poderosas hacia la libertad que se manifiestan en los territorios que no han obtenido aún la independencia,

Convencida de que todos los pueblos tienen un derecho inalienable a la libertad absoluta, al ejercicio de su so­beranía y a la integridad de su territorio nacional,

Proclama solemnemente la necesidad de poner fin rápida e incondicionalmente al colonialismo en todas sus formas y manifestaciones;

Y a dicho efecto
Declara que:

  1. La sujeción de pueblos a una subyugación, do­minación y explotación extranjeras constituye una denegación de los derechos humanos fundamentales, es contraria a la Carta de las Naciones Unidas y compromete la causa de la paz y de la cooperación mundiales.
  2. Todos los pueblos tienen el derecho de libre determinación; en virtud de este derecho, determinan libremente su condición política y persiguen libre­mente su desarrollo económico, social y cultural.
  3. La falta de preparación en el orden político, económico, social o educativo no deberá servir nunca de pretexto para retrasar la independencia.
  4. A fin de que los pueblos dependientes puedan ejercer pacífica y libremente su derecho a la inde­pendencia completa, deberá cesar toda acción armada o toda medida represiva de cualquier índole dirigidacontra ellos, y deberá respetarse la integridad de su territorio nacional.
  5. En los territorios en fideicomiso y no autónomos y en todos los demás territorios que no han logrado aún su independencia deberán tomarse inmediatamente medidas para traspasar todos los poderes a los pue­blos de esos territorios, sin condiciones ni reservas, en conformidad con su voluntad y sus deseos libre­mente expresados, y sin distinción de raza, credo ni color, para permitirles gozar de una libertad y una independencia absolutas.
  6. Todo intento encaminado a quebrantar total o parcialmente la unidad nacional y la integridad terri­torial de un país es incompatible con los propósitos y principios de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas.
  7. Todos los Estados deberán observar fiel y estric­tamente las disposiciones de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, de la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos y de la presente Declaración sobre la base de la igualdad, de la no intervención en los asuntos internos de los demás Estados y del respeto de los derechos soberanos de todos los pueblos y de su in­tegridad territorial.
947a. sesión plenaria, 14 de diciembre de 1960.

Declaration of the Continental Indigenous Summit Mar de Plata 2005


History and context:
From November 2-5, 2005 in Mar de Plata, Argentina over 250 delegates from across the continent joined with the host organizations of Argentina and the Mapuche Nation to convene an independent Continental Indigenous Summit of Indigenous Nations Pueblos and Organizations.  In defense of the integrity of our Territories and Peoples, the Indigenous Nations of Abya Yala, acting in the spirit of Self Determination, gathered to challenge the agenda of the States meeting simultaneously at the Summit of the Presidents of the Organization of American States (OAS). 

In spite of limited resources and overcoming many obstacles, the Continental Indigenous Summit of Mar de Plata was a critical and necessary act of independence, a clarification of political position and organizational stand against the overt manipulation, cooptation and control by the States, perpetrators of over 500 years of colonization.

Beginning in Ottawa, 2001 with a continental gathering financed entirely by the Canadian government, the process of blatant cooptation, manipulation, and control of the Indigenous Peoples continental movement for Self Determination was exposed when Canada attempted to utilize the Ottawa event to legitimize the promotion of the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA). 

The strategy to place all opposition to the neo-liberal globalization agreements such as the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) within a pre-packaged and manageable framework was given continuity by the Canadian government in late October 2005.  At Buenos Aires, Argentina a “Continental Indigenous Summit” was organized a week before and at a safe distance away from the Mar de Plata Summit of the heads of state of the Americas.

The primary goal of the Buenos Aires conference which was bought and paid for by the Canadian government, was to define the context of the debate regarding the political and economic future of the continent exclusively within the framework of the agenda of the States.

''The United Nations, in the last session of Human Rights in Geneva, recommended to the Canadian government to make efforts to improve the lives of Native peoples who are the poorest of the poor. Yet, the Canadian government has been successful in co-opting the indigenous leadership by creating a well-paid Canadian Aboriginals bureaucracy and is now trying to export this model to Latin America.''
Arthur Manuel, Shushwap Nation British Columbia, Canada: Indigenous Network for Economies and Trade (INET) Statement to the Continental Indigenous Summit - Mar de Plata, Argentina November 2-5, 2005

And so on the 4th of November at Mar de Plata over 300 Indigenous Peoples of the hemisphere joined with the 60 thousand participants of the Peoples Summit of the Americas marching to protest the neo-liberal globalization policies and presence of US President George W. Bush. 

Calling for the implementation of the specific and applicable procedures under international law for DECOLONIZATION of the hemisphere, the independent Summit of the Indigenous Nations Pueblos gathered at Mar de Plata, Argentina, and acting upon the principle that self definition is the precept of self-determination, proclaimed to the world the following declaration:
November 2-4, 2005




We the Indigenous Peoples and Organizations of the Continent of Abya Yala [America], meeting in the ancestral territory of the Mapuche People at Mar del Plata, Argentina from the second to the fourth of November, first invoking the cosmovision of our elders and following the path drawn by them, in a framework of unity and harmony among us and with our mother nature, we emit the following words:

We are the representatives of more than 50 million Indigenous women and men of this continent; we are Nations that predate the existing States, and therefore we claim the recognition of our Right of Self-determination as Peoples that we may decide our own independent forms of political organization and define our own processes of economic, social and cultural development.

For 500 years the Indigenous Peoples have been victims of the assault of genocide, colonization, and discrimination that are the instruments of imperial ideologies and policies that have systematically violated our fundamental rights. Across the hemisphere, any meaningful dialogue between Indigenous Peoples and the States and national society must take into account the collective and historic nature of these our inherent rights as Indigenous Peoples.
At this time we are witnesses to the ways in which domination and repression toward our peoples continues through tactics of political and economic globalization. In these times, economic exploitation and pillaging of our territories and resources continue in benefit of both national and transnational companies and bureaucratic elites.
Under the imposition of antiterrorist laws of some States repression has increased, as has murder and incarceration of our traditional authorities and leaders with the aim of impeding the recognition and the exercise of our fundamental rights. We condemn the political and judicial persecution of the States and national and transnational corporations intended to silence the voice of our Indigenous Peoples who are demanding their right to a life with dignity. 

Without any legitimate justification vast areas of the continent are being militarized, especially by the United States of America, with the aim of politically controlling natural resources, many of which are in Indigenous territories.
The creation of the multilateral organizations of the States in our hemisphere, such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States, are carried out without the participation of the Indigenous Peoples, and that therefore these organizations have a moral, material, and historical obligation and debt to the Indigenous Peoples of Abya Yala and the entire world.
For the Indigenous Peoples, our territories, lands and resources are fundamental for the continued development of our cultures; they represent and are interrelated with our spirituality, culture, customs, traditions, medicines, food security, and the very life itself of our Peoples.
Indigenous Peoples are the first affected by the policies that the States are pushing to promote supposed “development”. Yet these policies, such as the push for agrarian reform, mining, hydroelectric projects, oil, and infrastructure construction industries have not produced development but have instead promoted the invasion of our territories, the destruction of our forests, the predatory extraction of our soil and subsoil resources, the pollution of the environment, resulting in the impoverishment and genocide of our people. At the same time, we must recognize that the borders and territorial limits imposed by the States have divided our families, communities, Nations and Peoples, attacking our collective and individual integrity as preexisting Nations and Pueblos.
Contrary to improving the situation of our peoples of Abya Yala, the representatives of the States gathered in the IV Summit of the Americas continue to discuss economic policies that will deepen the existing systematic marginalization and discrimination through agreements like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Puebla-Panama plan (PPP), the South American Regional Initiative, and the Free Trade Area of the Americas (ALCA), among others.  These economic agreements are instruments to benefit powerful States as well as national and transnational corporations, to the detriment of our Indigenous Peoples and society as a whole. Further, such agreements decided by the States are contrary to regional and international legal instruments of Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights that these same States themselves are committed to protecting and guaranteeing but yet systematically break.
Any true, pluralistic and inclusive democracy must first undergo the recognition of the collective rights of the Indigenous Peoples at a national and international level; to be valid, the full and effective participation in all development plans must be submitted to our Nation-Pueblos for free, previous and informed consent. 
In terms of the objectives of the Fourth Summit of the Americas which focus only on job creation as a way to eliminate poverty and strengthen effective governance, we now manifest our concern and rejection to this policy as being contrary to the pluricultural, multiethnic, and multilingual nature of our societies in violation of our right to economic self-determination. 

In order to promote the so-called democracy and effective governance of the continent, the States of Abya Yala should commit to eliminating the external debt and reject all economic policies and structures that oppress Indigenous Peoples for being the cause of our Peoples’ current situation of poverty and marginalization. 

Based on the text of the Sub-commission, we call for the prompt adoption by the OAS and the UN of the Declaration of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights as being absolutely necessary. This demand was recently adopted by the Heads of State and Government during the High Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations in its fifty-ninth session, in which it consolidates the term Indigenous Peoples and reaffirms  

“… our commitment to continue making progress in the advancement of the human rights of the world’s Indigenous Peoples at the local, national, regional and international levels, including through consultation and collaboration with them, and to present for adoption a final draft United Nations declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples as soon as possible.”


1.   We Indigenous Peoples have our own vision of development that is based on criteria of solidarity among human beings and a profound respect for mother earth. We are not in agreement with the dominant concept and economic model, which is based on exploitation of humans by humans and of nature in general. Therefore, we reject the vision and the economic model currently promoted by the States, in which they only aspire to create employment in order to fight poverty and strengthen democratic governance, while violating human rights and destroying our environment and ecosystems. Such a vision will only continue to worsen the pillaging of our territories and natural resources, leading to more aggression against our rights of autonomy.

2.  We reject the concept of poverty promoted by the summit of the OAS States, because it does not take into account our cosmovision and Ways of Life. For the Indigenous Peoples, the concept of poverty does not focus only on an economic perspective, but rather takes on an integral and holistic dimension. For our peoples, maintaining out territorial rights, rights to land and resources, guarantees our continuance as Peoples and our integral and sustained development. This has been reaffirmed by the States in the 59th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations: “To recognize that the sustainable development of Indigenous Peoples and their communities is crucial in our fight against hunger and poverty.”

3.  We categorically reject the opening and commodification of our territories, lands, and natural resources to national and international markets as a way to fight poverty. Currently, these types of development projects translate into the heartless exploitation of our resources. As a consequence, the States must recognize the negative impact that such projects and actions of supposed development generate in the lives and cultures of our Peoples.

4.  The States and national and multi-national corporations continue to deprive us of our means and resources for subsistence; there must be an embargo of allocating concessions for the existing natural resources in our traditional lands and territories without our free, previous, and informed consent.

5.  The proposals to strengthen democratic governance in our continent with only partial and discriminatory measures in violation of the Human rights of Indigenous Peoples makes the so called “free market” an instrument of oppression in favor of national and transnational corporations. 


FIRST: That the States recognize the Indigenous Peoples’ Right of Self-Determination and that, in virtue of this right, we can freely and independently decide our own Political Condition and likewise promote our own Economic, Social and Cultural Development.

SECOND: That the States officially recognize the pluri-cultural, multiethnic, and multilingual character of their societies, in order to combat institutionalized discrimination, racism, intolerance and exclusion.

THIRD: That the States fully recognize, respect and guarantee the property rights of our Indigenous Peoples over our territories, lands, and natural resources which we have traditionally and historically used, occupied or possessed, or acquired by other means, as inherent collective rights of the Indigenous Peoples which are undeniable, inalienable, and undiminished and indomitable.

FOURTH: That the States, together with Indigenous Peoples, delimit, demarcate and establish title for the lands territories and resources of the Indigenous Peoples, fully respecting the Indigenous normative systems of jurisprudence within a framework of international judicial pluralism.

FIFTH: That the government organisms of the Inter-american system recognize, respect and protect the cultural patrimony and intellectual property of the Indigenous Peoples, with full respect for the Indigenous normative systems.

SIXTH: That the States recognize, respect and support Indigenous Peoples’ medicinal and traditional health practices, including the right to the protection of plants, animals and minerals that are of vital interest, from the medical point of view. Also, the States must guarantee access, without any discrimination, to all of the health institutions, services and medical attention, with particular attention to the needs of Indigenous People who may be disabled.

SEVENTH: That the States recognize and effectively comply in their constitutions, laws and institutions, the Rights of our Indigenous Peoples, in particular our ways of living, as an effective mechanism for eradicating poverty, marginalization, and social, economic, and political exclusion.

EIGHTH: That the American States adopt, together with the Indigenous representatives and delegates, the American Declaration of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights in the context of the organization of American States (OAS) as a way to strengthen peace and coexistence between Peoples on this continent.

NINTH: That the States of the Americas and the world promptly approve the Universal Declaration of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights within the framework of the United Nations (UN), based on the text approved by the sub-commission.

TENTH: That the States ratify and effectively comply with International Labor Organization - ILO Convention 169 as it concerns the rights of Indigenous and Tribal peoples in independent countries.

ELEVENTH: That the States implement measures and effective actions to end the systematic violations of the human rights of Indigenous women, boys and girls, especially in situations where there is armed conflict.

TWELFTH: That the States implement measures and effective actions to avoid militarization and to demilitarize the lands and territories of the Indigenous Peoples, as well as the application of effective sanctions to punish illegal armed groups, paramilitary units, and other entities that have been used by the States to attack our communities.

THIRTEENTH: That the States guarantee and respect the free transit of the Indigenous Persons and families of the Indigenous lands and territories traversed by state and national borders.

FOURTEENTH: That the States of the Americas and their appropriate organisms implement concrete measures and actions to resolve and to put an end to judicial and political processes of oppression initiated against the Indigenous community and civil society authorities and leaders.

FIFTEENTH: That the States of the Americas, together with the Indigenous Peoples, formulate and implement fora and instances for dialogue and interaction with Indigenous Peoples within a framework of the Inter-american systems of governance.

SIXTEENTH: We call on the Indigenous Peoples and organizations of Abya Yala to go forward in a spirit of union and solidarity. In this context, we manifest our special solidarity with all of the Indigenous Peoples that are fighting to defend and implement their collective and historic rights, such as is the case of our Zapatista brothers and sisters in Mexico and others whose traditional lives, cultures and borders are under assault by external forces.

SEVENTEENTH: In order to strengthen and cultivate brotherly relationships, cooperation and solidarity among us, we make a special appeal for the creation of a Network of Indigenous Peoples and Organizations of Abya Yala for Indigenous Rights that will allow us to have permanent systematic and effective interaction and relationship on a continental level.

Issued from Mapuche Territories, Mar del Plata, Argentina, November 2, 2005

! Another America is Possible !
 ! Never again an America without the Indigenous Peoples !


Actions of Implementation

Continental Indigenous Summit

Mar de Plata, Argentina  November 2-3-4, 2005

The United Nations and the Organization of American States - OAS

ACTION:  To implement the initiatives of DECOLONIZATION, at the dimension of our continent Abya Yala, obligated the procedures under international law indicated by resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly 1514 and 1541, among others.


ACTION:  To call for the commitment of support from the social justice movements of the continent for the global campaign of the Indigenous Peoples in demand of annulment of the Papal Bull Inter Cetera of 1493 (Doctrine of Discovery)


ACTION:  Historical Clarification 

The Continental Indigenous Summit Mar de Plata 2005 is the continuation of a process and millennial tradition of Continental Union of Indigenous Nations, the Confederation of the Eagle and the Condor, which was regenerated at Quito, Ecuador in 1990 at the First Continental Encounter of Indigenous Peoples.  The Second Continental Encounter of Indigenous Nations, Pueblos and Organizations was hosted in México at Temoaya, in 1993.  These two continental encounters served as the foundation for the First International Indigenous Summit realized at Teotihuacan, México in 2000.  The Second Continental Summit Abya Yala took place in 2004, once again at Quito, Ecuador.

ACTION:  Call to Cultural Uprising

It is proclaimed from this Continental Indigenous Summit a call for a movement of CULTURAL UPRISING by the Indigenous Peoples of all urban areas of the continent, in accord with the principles of the Declaration of Mar De Plata, 2005.

Embassy of the Indigenous Peoples
Tel: (602) 254-5230
P.O. Box 24009 Phoenix, AZ 85074


To the Secretariat of the Continental Indigenous Summit
Mar de Plata, Argentina  November 2, 2005

The Legend of Truth and the Doctrines of Power

Amixpanzinco, Amixtlamatqueh,

Good greetings.  We take this opportunity to deliver the attached documentation regarding the agenda of responsibilities which are of priority to the Indigenous Nation Pueblos gathered in Summit in Mar de Plata, Argentina November 1-4, 2005.

We stood by the Sacred Fire in Quito, Ecuador in 1990 at the First Continental Encounter of Indigenous Pueblos and Nations and recall the mutual commitments made under the principles embodied under our ancient ethics of International Indigenous Law. These are the traditional systems of jurisprudence, of tradition and liberation, which emerge from the essential fundamentals of the sacred inter-relationship of all life, and the obligations of we who are the earth children of the Continental Confederation of the Eagle and the Condor.

We were at the Second Continental Encounter of Indigenous Nations and Pueblos in 1993 in Temoaya, Mexico and returned to Teotihuacan, Mexico in the year 2000 for the First Continental Summit of Indigenous Nations, Pueblos and Organizations convened by the Continental Council of Indigenous Nations and Organizations - CONIC. From July 21-25, 2004 we attended the II Continental Summit Abya Yala in Quito, Ecuador where the accords of the previous First Continental Summit of Teotihuacan 2000 were once again validated and reasserted before the Sacred Fire of the altar of the Continent. These mutual commitments are given expression by the Treaty of Teotihuacan, a mutual commitment at the continental level among the Indigenous Nation Pueblos with four aspects:

Spiritual Alliance

Political Solidarity

Cultural Understanding

Commercial and Economic Agreements of Exchange and Development - Pochtecayotl

And so we stand today once again among our relatives of the great and humble family of Indigenous Nation Pueblos of our mother continent Abya Yala in summit at Mar de Plata.  May the Creator continue to guide our footsteps, as we leave a trail for the future generations.

The previous assertion of the sequence of continental gatherings from Quito 1990, Temoaya 1993, Teotihuacan 2000, back to Quito in 2004 and now Mar de Plata is not meant to be controversial: it is history. It is our history, related not from within the manipulative context of the government states or the "compra-cumbres" crowd: it is our story, the legend of a continent emerging from centuries of genocide and colonization.

In fulfillment of these sacred obligations and the mutual commitments made under the Treaty of Teotihuacan at the First Continental Indigenous Summit of Indigenous Nations and Pueblos, we now submit the following for discussion and action before the Continental Indigenous Summit Mar de Plata, Argentina.

Issue: Self Determination and Decolonization

A basic issue for the Indigenous Nation Pueblos of the continent Abya Yala (the Americas) continues to be the discrepancy of the eventual outcome of self determination for the Indigenous Peoples as viewed from the perspective of the interests of the government states and from within the cultural based cosmovision of the Nican Tlacah, the Indigenous Peoples themselves.

The elemental issues derive from utterly divergent presentations of the relationship of human society to territory, individually and collectively, as either government states or the reality of the Nican Tlacah Indigenous Peoples and Nations. The jurisdiction of the states is one of dominion and colonization, that of the Nican Tlacah is one of inter-relationship and reciprocity. As evidenced by the Global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), recently commissioned and completed by the United Nations, the reality of the Indigenous Peoples relationship of territoriality is increasingly recognized scientifically at a global level as being the best hope for humanity to achieve homeostasis within the environment of the world’s ecosystems.

Any political position on self determination, whether by the government states or the Nican Tlacah will inevitably be determined within the context of the sum of global ecological systems as sets of parameters, including humanity itself as a subsystem among all these relationships.

In terms of the continent Abya Yala, [the Americas] a centuries old Doctrine of Denial takes its place among a regime of genocidal policies that is centuries in the making and continues till today. Beginning with the Papal Bull Inter Cetera of 1493, continuing with the present militarily enforced Monroe Doctrine and now projected under the Free Trade Area of the Americas, the Doctrine of Denial is insidious for presenting to the world’s Peoples a denial of the very processes of history in terms of recognition and self determination for the Indigenous Nation Pueblos of our continent.

In view of the above, we now propose that:

A special session of the Decolonization Committee of the United Nations under section 73(e) of the United Nations Charter must be held in order to evaluate the above mentioned Doctrines of Power in light of the Spirit of Truth, and under the criteria of evaluation established by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 "Right of Self Determination" and GA 1541 which outlines the processes and criteria for identifying and rectifying the crime of colonization under the norms of international law of the member states of the United Nations system.

An finally, we propose that in the process of undertaking such an initiative, namely the implementation of the processes of DECOLONIZATION for the Indigenous Nation Pueblos and territories of our continent Abya Yala, without which any declaration of self determination would be of only limited rhetorical value in the practical sense of International Law, special attention be given to the establishment by the United Nations of the regional organization of the Organization of American States OAS itself, as yet another example of the usurpation and violation of the Right of Self Determination in our hemisphere by establishing yet another regime of political representation on our territories in our continent without our participation or consent and in violation of GA 1514, as evidenced under GA 1541.

Respectfully submitted,
Tlahtokan Nahuacalli
Izkalotlan, Aztlan
Embassy of the Indigenous Peoples
c/o TONATIERRA  P.O.  Box 24009     Phoenix, AZ  85074   Tel: (602) 254-5230 

Secretaría Cumbre Continental de Pueblos y Organizaciones Indígenas
Lavalle 437 4º ‘B’. (CP 1047) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires
Tel./Fax: 0054 11 4326 2940
Pagina Web:
Abya Yala